Friday, February 7, 2020

Inflation in the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Inflation in the United States - Essay Example Inflation in the United States Inflation affects the lives of all citizens in the US economy yet not everyone has the same purchasing power and income. It is therefore important for us to understand the causes of inflation, its effects and some actions taken by the government to regulate it. There has been a wide range of literature on the causes of inflation in history. There are different schools of thought on the causes of inflation. They are commonly divided into quantity theories of inflation and quality theories of inflation (Cate 96). The quantity theory of inflation is based on the quantity of money equation. On the other hand, the quality theory of is based on the sellers expectations to exchange currency at a later date. Presently, the quantity of the theory money theory is widely accepted as the inflation model in the long- run. This paper shall explore the causes of inflation based on three major theories, the Keynesian view, the rational expectations theory and the monetarist theory. The Keynesian vie w asserts that changes in money supply in the economy do not directly affect the prices of goods and services, inflation results from economic pressures that are manifested in the increases prices of goods and services. According to Robert J. Gordon’s triangle model, there are three main types of inflation: demand- pull inflation, monetary expansion and cost-push inflation. (Cate 141). Demand- pull inflation is the most common and it describes a situation where the demand of goods increases over and above the supply. Sellers increase the prices of goods, as they know that they have the liberty to do so. There are numerous circumstances resulting to demand pull inflation the most important being an expanding economy. This type of inflation could lead to economic growth as long as it is within the right limits. Since people expect increasing inflation rates, they make increasing purchases to avoid price increases in future. Cost-push inflation is caused by a drop in the aggrega te supply. This may have been as a result of an increase in the prices of inputs and natural disasters. Finally, built in inflation is caused by adaptive spirals that are relate to shifts in prices or wages. An important concept in this theory is the relationship between unemployment and inflation that is commonly referred to as the Phillips curve (Cate 141). This concept suggests that there is a tradeoff between the stability of prices and employment. This model was used to describe the status of the US economy in the 1960s however; it failed to explain the connection between economic stagnation and increasing inflation. It can be stated that the Philips curve explains the demand- pull aspect of the triangle model. The rational expectations theory states that economic actors act rationally to maximize their well being in future. They do not act solely depending on opportunity cots and pressures. This view states that future expectations and strategies play a key role in inflation ( Gillman 67). A key assumption in this theory is that economic actors will act to keep up with rising inflation rates. This means that the central bank must play a key role in ensuring that they regulate the insurance rates. The monetarist view is based on the fact that the major factor affecting deflation or inflation is the velocity of money. In other words, inflation is affected by how quick the supply of

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Capital Punishment Essay Example for Free

Capital Punishment Essay As a society we have an established set of rules and norms that are enforced by our justice system which we as a people have deemed as the highest power to determine when these rules and norms are broken and what appropriate punishment should be given. We live in a world filled with diversity. Not only diversity in cultures but diversity with people in terms of character and morals. Society is filled with both good upstanding people but also those people who find it less than necessary to follow any norms or rules society has created but instead find a life in crime. Crimes can range from something minimal such as theft to the most serious which is murder. This introduces us to capital punishment or more commonly termed, the death penalty. Though openly controversial, capital punishment has its share of opponents and supporters. Many philosophers have discussed issues in relation to violence, laws and punishment. Malcolm X is one such philosopher. His beliefs in violence in terms of self defense can relate to the issue of capital punishment. Malcolm X believed that one should defend themselves by all means necessary when it means self defense. He believed in non violence unless one’s life was at risk and needed defending. In such cases self defense should be practiced. In his famous speech â€Å"The Ballot or the Bullet† delivered on April 13, 1964 he introduces his principle of self defense and his intentions to work â€Å"non violently as long as the enemy is nonviolent† but also be â€Å"violent when the enemy gets violent†. These are examples of his principles. There are other philosophers that approach the issue of capital punishment in more depth. Hugo Adam Bedau and Ernest van den Haag are two such philosophers who present their arguments to capital punishment. Bedau and Haag offer compelling arguments that as a reader one may find it difficult to choose a side. The fact of the matter is that capital punishment is the most extreme form of punishment and because of its severity and irreversibility; its usage must be very stringent. Both Bedau and Haag discuss capital punishment and take relatively different sides about similar issues. Both construct their arguments discussing issues such as capital punishment and its unjust application, its deterrence ability and the possible execution of innocent people. Haag takes on the position of pro capital punishment and argues his position in his article â€Å"In Defense of the Death Penalty†. Bedau on the other side takes on the position of pro abolition and discusses his arguments in his article â€Å"Capital Punishment†. We’ll begin with Haag and his arguments. Haag argues that the execution of innocent people believed to be guilty is a miscarriage of the justice system and should be stopped but it does not warrant the abolishing of capital punishment. Killing innocent people is not enough to abolish capital punishment and thus risking the innocent lives that may be saved by these â€Å"murderers†. These advantages in turn outweigh the disadvantages of killing innocent â€Å"criminals† and the punishment of capital punishment is just. In executing a murderer it is concluded by Isaac Ehrlich’s 1933-1969 study that one execution may result in 7 or 8 fewer murders because the execution acts as deterrence for future murders (pg. 351). Haag presents us with two choices in regards to deterrence. The first choice he presents is that to trade the life of a convicted murderer and save the 7 or 8 innocent victims whose murder is probable unless the murderer is executed. The second choice is to allow the murderer to live and possibly lose the 7 or 8 innocent people who the murderer can possibly kill. Most of us would choose the first choice and Haag agrees. He argues that it would be irresponsible not to execute the murderer simply because there is no guarantee that their execution would help save the lives of potential innocent victims. It seems immoral to allow murderers to live on even if there is even the slightest possibility that innocent lives are at risk. Haag supports this argument by stating that â€Å"more severe penalties are more deterrent than less severe penalties† (pg. 352). People are less likely to commit severe crimes if the punishment is just as severe. With that said it only seems logical to say that the most severe crime warrants the most severe punishment. Thus, murderers should be punished with the death penalty. Haag also uses the situation with current prisoners to elaborate his point of how capital punishment is a deterrent. Prisoners serving life sentences and who are not sentenced to execution relatively follow prison rules and norms because the possibility of a more severe punishment or sentence does exist. Haag states that without the death penalty, prisoners would find no reason to avoid committing more crimes towards fellow prisoners or guards because the abolishment of the death penalty presents them with a sort of immunity. They can freely commit more crimes knowing they will not get additional punishment. Not only within the prison context but criminals on the outside world and who anticipate that their crime will result in a life sentence may be compelled to murder as many people as necessary to facilitate their escape. No death penalty threat would stop them from committing more crimes. This is where death penalty plays the deterrent role. Whether capital punishment is at fault for sometimes executing innocent people or positively deterring other criminals from committing murder, the death penalty and its application is the third issue we will discuss. According to Haag the death penalty is separate from its moral characteristic. If the death penalty is perfectly distributed but morally unjust, it would be unjust in each case. In the same manner if the death penalty was morally just but applied discriminatorily it would remain just in each case. Guilty people do not all of a sudden become innocent because they escaped it or innocent people don’t deserve punishment because others suffer it. Justice and equality are not hand in hand and though equality should be important and practiced it should not affect the hand of justice. Bedau stands on the other side of the capital punishment issue. His arguments try to prove why the position of abolition is better. In respects to the same issues that Haag presents I will discuss Bedau’s arguments Both Haag and Bedau discuss how it is possible that with capital punishment innocent people deemed guilty are executed. However, Bedau presents this argument in a cost benefit analysis. Haag states that the execution of innocent people is a miscarriage of justice and that its advantages of possibly saving future innocent victims because of the execution of the murderer outweigh the drawbacks of executing an innocent person. Therefore Haag uses the lives of future innocent victims as the advantage of capital punishment whereas Bedau though agreeing with Haag about the possibility of executing innocent people, identifies the risks as â€Å"social costs† (pg. 367). Bedau proceeds to discuss the economic costs that the death penalty incurs. Cost of housing the prisoner while on death row, cost of the capital trial and of the appeals. Bedau discusses the risk of executing innocent people just as Haag but Bedau finds different aspects of it to elaborate and approaches the matter in terms of costs to society. Haag makes two points in regards to deterrence for which Bedau has an argument he presents. According to Haag, capital punishment deters other criminals from committing murder and per the Ehrlich study 1 execution saves 7 or 8 innocent lives and not executing the murderer is a form of irresponsibility when the only reason is that there is no guarantee that their execution will lengthen or save future innocent victims who would be murdered had the murderer be spared. Bedau argues that capital punishment cannot deter murder but instead it can possibly only prevent it. Bedau draws a distinction between the death penalty as a crime preventive and death penalty as a crime deterrent. Haag does not make a distinction and instead only discusses the death penalty as a crime deterrent. It is only reasonable that the distinction be made. Executing a murderer can be seen as a crime preventive if the execution prevents the murderer from killing again. It can also be seen as a crime deterrent if the execution serves as an example and results in frightening off others from committing murder. Now according to Haag capital punishment serves as a deterrent for murderers but on the contrary Bedau argues that capital punishment can never deter the murderer from further crimes but rather it can at most prevent them from committing them. It is impossible to determine what deterrence the death penalty proves for the person has already been executed. There is no way of measuring the number of crimes the murderer did not commit because of the death penalty threat. Bedau presents us with an alternative. He argues that because it is impossible to know what or how many crimes a murderer will be deterred from committing with a death penalty threat, it is just as likely the same crimes be deterred by a lesser punishment such as long-term imprisonment. This fails to show that the death penalty is a better deterrent than the less severe penalty of long-term imprisonment for the crime of murder. Bedau then reinforces this by concluding that if death penalty and long-term imprisonment have an equal effectiveness or ineffectiveness as deterrents to murder, then arguing for capital punishment as deterring murder is flawed and weakened. In congruence to his stand on abolition Bedau then argues that there is no reason for choosing the death penalty when a lesser punishment can be just as effective. After discussing capital punishment as a deterrent and the risks of executing innocent people that it creates, Bedau presents a different approach and perspective to Haag in terms of the death penalty and its application. Haag states that unequal justice is still justice and that equality before the law should be enforced but never at the expense of justice. Bedau offers a different perspective. According to Bedau, the death penalty is a â€Å"poor man’s justice† (pg. 375). Both opponents and supporters of the death penalty agree that capital punishment should be practiced fairly, equally and evenly and that it is a fundamental dictate of justice. The only dispute lies with the actual use of capital punishment. Bedau further elaborates how capital punishment is unfairly distributed. People are sentenced to death not because of their release risks or poor parole but because they have poor defense at trial; they have inexperienced or overworked counsels or they are just without the funds for an appeal trial. This reinforces the street saying â€Å"those without the capital get the punishment† (pg. 375) as Bedau quotes. People are not convicted based on their nature or violent behavior but rather on how much money they both have and are willing to spend on their trial. Bedau and Haag present different arguments to similar issues and though Bedau can agree with Haag on an issue or two, he finds a different approach to it and elaborates it differently. Haag and Bedau present very compelling arguments and it is not difficult to understand each of their points. However, personally I would have to say that I take a much harsher and tougher stand in capital punishment. One that is not discussed by either philosopher. Of course in a perfect world murder would not exist and capital punishment would not be needed, but in this world murder and those who commit murder are very much real. Capital punishment should mean a life for a life; Lex talionis as Bedau briefly mentions. In the most literal terms if a person has the heart and willingness to murder another human being then they should be willing to lose their life the same exact way. I do believe in capital punishment being a deterrent to murder but the fact that not every murder results in the death penalty as punishment I believe is a reason why some criminals are sometimes reckless with their decisions. However, if there was some way of knowing how a trial was to end and know that the punishment would be the death penalty, it would have to make the criminal think twice. Some argue that the death penalty is just an easy way out for the murderer. This is why I further will elaborate my point. The death penalty should be specific to the murder. If a murderer tortures his victim then they too should be tortured. If the murderer shoots his victim they too should be shot to death and if the murderer burns his victim they too should be burned. Now I would like to clarify that this should be applied to murders that are premeditated or intended and not accidental deaths. This should apply to those criminals that had an obvious intention to cause harm to their victims and resulting in death. I can understand the moral and ethical questions this would bring up and the issue of stooping to the level of murderers but those are just issues and opinions, the fact of the matter is you take a life you give your life. This approach will of course never happen so I will offer a different one. Considering that it is argued that capital punishment is unfairly applied and that an accused murderer’s innocence or guilt is determined based on how much funds they have to afford good counsel and appeals then as a way to eliminate this risk every single person who si accused of murder should have the best counsel available to them regardless of whether they can afford it or not. This will allow every single person to get a fair trial and the possibility of executing someone who is actually innocent will no longer exist. A person will no longer be executed with the possible doubt that they may be innocent but just could not afford to be defended fairly. If someone murderers another human being then they should be punished just as severely, but also until their guilt is proven they should be defended like anyone else, regardless of how much money they have. Innocence and guilt should never have a price tag. Capital punishment is our society’s way of keeping moral boundaries and norms in place. We as a people can have different opinions about the severity of the death penalty but that is all they are, opinions. Whether we agree with the death penalty or oppose it we must learn to recognize other points of views and educate ourselves. Murder is the most severe of crimes and the death penalty is the most severe of punishments. Therefore, each one of us has a choice to decide whether they go hand in hand.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Arthur Millers Presentation Of John Proctors Moral Journey Essay

Examine Arthur Miller's Presentation Of John Proctor's Moral Journey - The Crucible by Arthur Miller "The Crucible" by Arthur Miller is a play based upon an American settlement during the late 1600's. It is centred around actual events from history to try to portray the way of life in this era. Miller has chosen the confusion of the witch trials of this time, to provide a base for the struggles of his main character, John Proctor. At the beginning of the play the focus is laid mainly on introducing the main characters and storyline, but as the script unfolds, it becomes clear that John Proctor is the main character, something not immediately obvious from the beginning. It is how Miller presents and demonstrates Proctor's moral journey throughout the play, and the different channels he uses to do this that I will focus on. Act One really only sets the scene for the play by portraying the different characters in the Salem and how their ways of life revolve mostly around the 'church' and their religion. The inhabitants can for the most part be sectioned off into three groups; the established figures, eg. Rev. Parris; the citizens, and people who have in theory 'earned' their status, eg. Francis and Rebecca Nurse; and the 'outsiders', eg. Rev. Hale. This set-up seems to work well until the events of the play, when people become separated by their views, and everyone begins blaming others for their shortcomings in order to maintain their authority and status. The main power in the village being the church, naturally the Rev. Parris will do anything to keep his position, especially as Miller informs us that his character feels that for some reason everyone in the world is against him, and his life is jus... ... which he was innocent. At the very end, when he knew what would happen to him, Proctor refused to publish a lie about himself, or admit to a sin he did not commit. This shows at least some remnant of pride was left, even after everything he had been through - and this is what saves him in the end. It makes him realise that John Proctor wasn't as evil as he had thought, that, like everyone else, he was a mixture, and now with absolutely nothing to hide. Possibly, this act may cancel out John's adultery, especially as there is a lot of confusion around what are actually 'evil acts', and what are just natural flaws and instincts. Elizabeth says right at the end of the play, "He have his goodness now. God forbid I take it from him!.." This suggests goodness and reconciliation in Proctor's act, as the once shallow and indecisive John, is finally decisive.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

An Evaluation of the European Computer Driving Licence Essay

1. Introduction The research project includes the complete lifespan of the work from the rationale to the conclusion. I examine the reasons for conducting the research, how the Company might benefit from the experience and how trainers may reflect and add to their toolbox of skills and knowledge. The project also considers the background to the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) and how this came to AEGON UK Services, what role Workplace Training Services had to play and what part of strategy ECDL was designed to meet. The main body of the project, the research itself, sets out to consider a range of questions related to the evaluation of ECDL within a financial services setting which I believe is a valuable piece of research that is not presently widely available. The research considers the practical implications of the work and the justifications for following the particular actions undertaken. The conclusion draws the project together and provides answers to the questions considered above. Does ECDL add value within the business, have learners acquired new skills, what of the present learning methods and how might these be designed to suit the needs of future learners? I support my research findings with the results of my data collection exercises together with statistics relating to ECDL including its recent use outside of Europe. Finally, I present the detail of material used whilst working on the project as Reference and Bibliography. 2 Rationale AEGON UK Services (UKS) is the ‘closed book’ arm or Third Party Administration (TPA) operation for AEGON UK one of the world’s top ten financial services companies. As a TPA no new business comes into the organisation and particularly in the present economic climate control of costs and expenses becomes paramount. It is not an overstatement to consider that the continuing well being of the UKS site in Lytham rests with its highly competitive nature. When one considers that the average cost of one staff member in Lytham is à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½40,00 pa whilst the equivalent outlay at the AEGON UK Head Office in Edinburgh is almost double at à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½65,000 pa, financial evidence becomes clear particularly with close to 900 staff at the Lytham site. There are many reasons for this divergence in costs, not all of which may be directly influenced by the Company but it is this difference which remains key to the health of the AEGON UK Services operation. It is against this background that the research into the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) is set, one of the organisation obtaining maximum value for each pound of spend. As Managing Director, David Barker, said at the 2002 Business Plan launch to staff, ‘Through the professionalism, skill and commitment of its staff AEGON UK Services has a key part to play in the growth and development of the UK operation.’ It is my responsibility, as Training Manager for UKS, to provide learning opportunities, develop staff and upgrade their knowledge and skills to meet the challenges set by the Managing Director and the Board of AEGON UK. After all, a shortage of skills could threaten the livelihood of the operation. Fingold and Soskice (1989:22) who created the notion of a ‘low skills/low quality equilibrium’ argued that ‘†¦ the majority of enterprises staffed by poorly trained managers and workers produce low quality goods and services.’ Their view was that Britain would not be able to keep pace with changing economic conditions. A decade on and still the need for the training and development of our staff in relation to the growth of our business remains. As David Blunkett, Secretary of State for Education Employment, sets out the challenge ahead for us all when speaking at the National Training Awards ceremony in December 2000. ‘The key message today is that there is a real economic need for people to upgrade skills throughout life. We need to help everyone fulfil their potential and respond to the changing world economy.’ (People Management, Vol 6, No 25). The task facing us in the UKS Training team is to meet the Secretary of State’s challenge and drive the business forward at the same time whilst maintaining a tight rein on expenditure. In the summer of 2001 our Union Representative introduced me to Workplace Training Services and this partnership with a local education provider soon bore fruit. A key strategic challenge for AEGON UK in 2002 was the introduction of a Common Operating Environment (COE) between its various UK operations; the most visible aspect of the COE would be the launch of Microsoft Office 2000 in the various sites. Significantly, as AEGON UK Services previously used Microsoft there were no plans to create a formal training plan for the business, rather than relying our awareness of existing applications. The Manager, Dedicated Delivery, of Workplace Training Services (an arm of Preston College), Cyril Wheat, offered the use of the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) as part of our solution to the need for staff learning and development in Office 2000. The seven-module ECDL programme is based upon the Microsoft Office 2000 applications and included learning on our key workplace needs, Word, PowerPoint and Excel. Over 50 staff started the ECDL qualification in September 2001 and to-date over 150 have either achieved the award or are working towards it. Further developments of our work with the College have been the provision of additional learning and development for staff, in particular the provision of Learndirect facilities and the healthy ‘learning partnership’ that has grown between an employer, union and education institution. To support the development of this significant partnership Workplace Training Services offered AEGON UK Services 100 free places on the ECDL programme in 2002. Although we have seen a large number of staff following the ECDL programme, myself included, AEGON UK Services has never conducted any formal evaluation of the learning programme. Whilst I have learned new skills and am able to access more difficult applications, has the Company benefited from the ECDL partnership, have the staff developed new skills and how might the programme best be carried forward? This is the rationale for the following research which is designed for the benefit, primarily, of the Company but also for the staff, College and as a valid piece of research. 3. Background Congratulations Sara Lundstedt! But why is this the Swedish environmental co-ordinator so significant to the history of the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL). Well, Sara became the one millionth student to complete the programme, as reported in the June 2001 edition of IT Training (P7). What is ECDL and where did it come from? In 1994 the concept originated in Finland where the Finnish Information Process Association introduced the Computer Driving Licence. Shortly after, the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (CEPIS) established the User Skills Task Force in 1995. The Task Force, supported by funding from the European Commission, was to examine how to raise IT skill levels in European industry. The Task Force identified the potential of the Finnish Licence and investigated the feasibility of adopting it and making it into a qualification for the whole of Europe. CEPIS actively encourages IT literacy and promotes acceptance of professional standards for ICT professionals throughout Europe. Pilot tests were carried out during 1995 and early 1996 resulting in the launch of the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) in August 1996, initially in Sweden and then throughout Europe. The ECDL Foundation was formed in 1997 to administer the ECDL programme on a not-for-profit basis and to promote, develop and certify computer skills and IT knowledge. According to its official website, the business of the ECDL Foundation is ‘To disseminate, promote and evolve ECDL as a globally accepted IT skills certification programme that prepares all people for participation in the Information Society.’ On the surface, this has been successful; in 1999 the International Computer Driving Licence (ICDL) was created as the standard qualification for non-European countries. The syllabus is identical to that of ECDL and was initially taken up by Australia, Canada, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Since then, more countries have joined the ICDL programme, ranging from Greece in 2000 to most recently, Malaysia. According to The Electric Paper Company Limited ( ‘†¦to-date, over 1.75 million people are registered on an ECDL/ICDL programme. This number is growing daily. There are tens of thousands of accredited test centres worldwide enabling people to take their tests an attain certificates.’ So, seven module appears to be working as students are assessed against the following competencies: basic concepts of IT, using a computer and managing files, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation and information and communication. The ECDL Foundation points out that the programme is now used in over 60 countries and IT Training announced in its October 2002 edition that ‘†¦the number of students †¦ enrolled topped the half-million mark. The British Computer Society (BCS) also reports that it is issuing 1,000 ECDL certificates every day.’ One of the first organisations in the public sector to move towards qualifying the computer skills of its staff is the NHS which recognised the increasing role that computer skills had to play in the public health sector. The significance of the ECDL decision is reflected in the fact that it was announced by Health Secretary, Lord Hunt. He said, ‘New technology investments to support staff to plan, deliver and review health care will not be successful unless more priority is given to ensuring that all staff have a basic level of IT skills.’ There is a great deal of published support for the ECDL programme and I have included highlights from two successful ventures. The House of Commons became the first Parliament in the world to offer staff training in IT skills, aimed at MP’s assistants and constituency workers. Dr. Matthew Donaghy, Industry and Parliament Trust ADAPT Project Manager, said, â€Å"Our objective, and indeed an important part of securing funding for the project, was to increase the employability of staff outside the Parliamentary sector. ECDL gives staff an extra qualification showing their competence with IT in the office, but also allows flexibility in training for the qualification so that it does not interfere with major projects they may be working on.† Donaghy continued, â€Å"An extra benefit of the course has been the increased level of teamwork between MP’s assistants. Staff are increasingly sharing tips on office practices, which will mean a more professional MPs service al l round.† The Bank of England is also enabling its staff to take the ECDL programme via personal or on-line training. Bank Deputy Governor, Mervyn King, who has successfully completed the qualification said, ‘Across the Bank, the ECDL will enable people to achieve a wide range of essential skills in IT, on which they can build in the future. I am convinced that it is an ideal way for my colleagues to improve and consolidate their knowledge, to build confidence and to improve both productivity and decision making.† ECDL appears therefore to have positive support, endorsed by Peter Bayley, Director of ECDL at the British Computer Society, who confirms that, ‘Since the UK launch there has been a growing demand for information about ECDL users from both the Further Education and Corporate sectors in order to measure profiles, motivation, satisfaction and likely interest in our newly launched ECDL Advanced qualification. Apart from a gratifying 95 per cent satisfaction rating, almost two thirds of those polled chose ECDL because of its broad recognition as a computer skills qualification. In addition, 97% said they would recommend ECDL to family, friends and colleagues and 87% were interested in an ECDL Advanced qualification.’ Despite the fact that there is a great deal of published evidential support for ECDL, there remains little evidence within AEGON UK Services that the programme has been and remains successful. To date, we have tended to take the view that people pass, therefore it works! But does it? As Reay (1994:23) points out, ‘†¦evaluation can enable you to do better in the future. This is not to say that you’ve been failing in the past; but good trainers realize there is always room for improvement.’ It is against this background, of a developing IT culture within Europe and latterly the rest of the world, that the research with AEGON UK Services is set. Will the experiences outlined above be matched within the Company? 4. Research ‘Most people associate the word ‘research’ with activities which are substantially removed from day-to-day life and which are pursued by outstandingly gifted persons with an unusual level of commitment’, suggested Howard and Sharp (1983:6). However, Denscombe (1998:1) takes an alternative approach when opening his piece of work some 15 years later, ‘Social research is no longer the concern of the small elite of professionals and full-time researchers. It has become the concern of a far greater number of people who are faced with the prospect of undertaking small-scale research projects as part of an academic course or their professional development.’ In my case, the piece of research was to be carried out over a 3 month period by the Training Manager of a large organisation with very ordinary skills and an extremely heavy workload! Payton (1979:4) identified research as ‘†¦the process of looking for a specific answer in an organised objective reliable way’ and it is this search for answers that has driven me to tackle the challenge of evaluating the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) in AEGON UK Services. Considering what questions to ask, Black suggests (1993:24/25), may prove a significant challenge in itself, ‘The most difficult part of starting a research project is often that of identifying the best question to ask, one that is meaningful, whose answer contributes to the discipline, and whose resulting research can be carried out within the resources available.’ When considering the questions to answer from the piece of research I was conscious of two things set down by Managing Director, David Barker: a) what would add value to the business supporting AEGON UK Services as a key part of the AEGON UK operation and b) provide learning opportunities to develop staff and up grade their knowledge and skills? These factors contributed directly to my questions: How has ECDL added value in AEGON UK Services? How have the learners acquired new skills to help them do their jobs? Has the method of learning for ECDL proved effective? What is the most effective way for any further learners to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to achieve ECDL? Blaxter et al (1997:58) identified 2 different methods for designing and doing a research project, their ‘research families’ of qualitative and quantitative methods. To Burns (2000:3), the quantitative approach is viewed as ‘scientific’ and in his opinion, ‘†¦has been the conventional approach to research in all areas of investigation. The methods and purposes of scientific inquiry have been moulded by countless generations of scientists †¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Burns (2000:9) outlines the strength of the quantitative approach as being its ‘†¦precision and control’, together with ‘†¦a deductive approach and the use of quantitative data (which) permits statistical analysis.’ Denscombe (1998:177) supports Burns’ standpoint by adding that, ‘The use of quantitative data in social research has its attractions. For one thing, it carries with it an aura of scientific respectability. Because it uses numbers and can present findings in the form of graphs and tables, it conveys a sense of solid, objective research.’ However, an alternative view also exists and caution is stressed by Silverman (2000:6) when pointing out that ‘ †¦the hard data on social structures which quantitative researchers claim to provide can turn out to be a mirage.’ Caution was necessary for me when considering the effect of ECDL upon an individual’s ability to do their job more effectively, as Cicourel (1964) points to defects with quantitative research, it may be useful but it also may conceal as well as reveal social processes. On the other hand, qualitative research is an umbrella term that covers a variety of styles of social research, drawing on a variety of disciplines. Tesch (1990) identified 26 distinct kinds of social research which can fall under the term ‘qualitative’ and no doubt, in time, that list will grow. However, Denscombe (1998:207) does see some common elements which begin to give some sense, as he sees it, to qualitative research, ‘†¦a concern with meanings and the way people understand things†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ and ‘†¦a concern with patterns of behaviour†¦.’ Cohen and Mannion (1998:8) go a stage further and view qualitative research as a search for understanding in which ‘†¦the principal concern is with †¦ the way in which the individual creates, modifies and interprets the world in which he or she finds himself or herself.’ Researchers who adopted this qualitative approach, responsive to individual perceptions, were felt by Bell (1999:7) to ‘†¦seek insights rather than statistical analysis.’ A positive aspect of qualitative research, according to Miles and Huberman (1984:10), is ‘†¦that they focus on naturally occurring, ordinary events in natural settings, so that we have a strong handle on what ‘real life’ is like.’ The approach to this research project was on a qualitative basis and whilst there is a range of disadvantages to this method, including, as identified by Anderson (1990) – the ability to collect a large number of replies, allow for easy collation and cheap and readily available, Anderson did identify advantages with a qualitative approach. Significantly, when gathering data and information Anderson held that a qualitative approach enables the researcher to really understand another person, and qualitative research tends to focus on learners, central to the research project, and their views of the world. My own research project mirrors a number of Anderson’s findings; focusing on the learners and managers and thei r views, attitudes and feelings is key to my work and as such does not lend itself naturally to a quantitative or scientific basis. However, in Denscombe’s opinion (1998: 173), the two approaches are not mutually exclusive, the distinction between the two is over-simplified and relates to the treatment of the data. As Strauss (1987: 2) argues, ‘†¦the genuinely useful distinction is in how data are treated analytically.’ Denscombe’s (1998:173) view then is that ‘†¦a distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is far from watertight.’ To some extent, the research design depends on what Barnes (1992:114) highlights as either a deductive or inductive approach to the project, with action research a key method of the latter. Barnes takes the view that when using action research, ‘†¦the outcomes†¦are generally increased knowledge, understanding and improved practice.’ The implication from this is that action research has a relevance for what I will be undertaking and indeed Blaxter et al (1997:64) confirm this by pointing out that ‘†¦it is well suited to the needs of people conducting research in their own workplaces, and who have a focus on improving aspects of their own and their colleagues’ practices.’ Cohen and Mannion (1998:186) also focus their thoughts on this work-related aspect of action research by suggesting that it ‘†¦is situational – it is concerned with diagnosing a problem in a specific context and attempting to solve it in that context.’ Although action research as a basis suits the needs of my project as shown above, there are a number of criticisms about the method, often reflecting Cohen and Mannion’s (1998:193) comments that it is not scientific, ‘†¦its sample is restricted and unrepresentative†¦its findings †¦are restricted to the environment in which the research is carried out.’ I accept the above but am satisfied that although my findings may be ‘restricted to the environment’, they are after all intended for use solely within AEGON UK Services, any wider usage will be a bonus. Research data was accumulated by the use of questionnaires completed by learners, interviews with senior managers and Preston College staff, and focus groups conducted with groups of learners. This common multi-method approach is referred to as triangulation, as originally identified by the works of Elliott and Adelman (1976), and has been defined in Open University course 811 Study Guide (1988:54) as ‘†¦cross-checking the existence of certain phenomena and the veracity of individual accounts by gathering data from a number of informants and a number of sources and subsequently comparing and contrasting one account with another in order to produce as full and balanced a study as possible.’ The use of triangulation goes some way to meeting the need for this piece of research to be both reliable and valid. Bryman (1989:55) outlines reliability as something which ‘†¦refers to the consistency of a measure.’ Blaxter et al (1997:200) summarise the issue of reliability in simple terms as considering whether ‘†¦you have carried it out in such a way that, if another researcher were to look into the same questions in the same setting, they would come up with essentially the same results †¦.’ Validity is identified in a similar tone by the same authors, ‘†¦to do with whether your methods, approaches and techniques actually relate to, or measure, the issues you have been exploring.’ Triangulation is particularly important to me because it increases the strength and validity of my work. The use of questionnaires is outlined by Denscombe (1998:88) who suggests that they are at their most productive when: used with large numbers, straightforward information required, the social climate is open, standardised, time allows for delays, resources allow for the costs and when the respondents can be expected to be able to read and understand the questions. However, my own piece of research is much smaller with fewer in the sample, straightforward questions on information that is current, all of which adds to the simplicity of this process. However, there is a range of issues when using questionnaires with Bell (1999:75) suggesting that ‘It is harder to produce a really good questionnaire than might be imagined.’ McKernan (2000:125) endorses that view and warns that amongst the disadvantages are the amount of time taken compiling successful questions and low response rates. Nevertheless, the use of questionnaires provides direct access to the learners and adds balance to the interviews with my colleagues and members of Workplace Training Services. Given that my questionnaire is straightforward with simple questions I am satisfied that this is a particularly useful method of gathering my research data. Further weight is given to this argument by Burns (2000:581) who supports me by adding such strengths as ‘†¦cost, each respondent receives same set of questions, errors in collation of responses reduced, respondents free to reply at own pace/time, fear and embarrassment avoided, may guarantee confidentiality.’ Burns also highlights a number of potential concerns with the use of questionnaires including a poor response rate when compared to interviews, the potential for bias due to poor returns and badly prepared questionnaires. I acknowledge Burns’ concerns and test my questionnaire on a small pilot group of learners, drawn at random, to assess its ease of use; 2 questions are reworded to reflect the comments of this group. Given the small number of staff to have completed the ECDL programme I issue the questionnaire to all 45 which also supports the validity of my research and reduces the potential for any bias due to the choice of my sample. I am conscious that, as Cohen et al (2000:245) put it, ‘†¦the questionnaire will always be an intrusion into the life of the respondent, be it in terms of time taken to complete the questionnaire†¦or the possible invasion of privacy.’ As a result of this, great care is taken over the questions posed, the amount of content and the manner in which this is issued to learners. To keep the questionnaire simple I want to largely use closed questions and this method is supported by Wilson and McLean (1994:21) who confirm that these are ‘†¦simple to complete†¦and do not discriminate unduly on the basis of how articulate the respondents are†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢. However, to ensure that people’s views are gathered I aim to allow respondents a small degree of space for their own thoughts to be considered which mirrors the views of Oppenheim (1992:115) when considering the use of closed questions: ‘†¦they do not enable respondents to add any remarks, qualifications and explanations to the categories, and there is a risk that the categories might not be exhaustive and that there might be bias in them.’ A blank questionnaire is included as Appendix B. It is the need to gather personal views and opinions that prompts me to include interviews with senior managers, and focus groups amongst learners. As Denscombe (1998) points out, questionnaires are at their best with large numbers; I am dealing with 6 senior managers and am mindful that the culture of my own organisation is such that as Training Manager it is politic for me to see the senior managers rather than issue them with a questionnaire. As McKernan (2000:128) claims, ‘Interviewing is a social survey skill which can be taught.’ I am satisfied that my role in designing and delivering ‘Interviewing Skills’ training courses for 5 years to the same group of managers enables me to carry out this process! There are a number of identified advantages in using interview techniques for gathering my research data and these include, Burns (2000:582/3) who is an exponent of its flexibility, ‘†¦the interviewer has the opportunity to observe the subject and the total situation in which they are responding†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ which according to Burns should produce higher response rates and ‘†¦if properly conducted should yield response rates of at least 80-85%. ‘ Cohen et al (2000:268) provides further thoughts and considerations on interviews, when outlining the need for trust to exist, suggesting that there should be a relationship between the interviewer and interviewee ‘†¦that transcended the research, that promoted a bond of friendship, a feeling of togetherness and joint pursuit of a common mission rising above personal egos.’ Once again, my relationship with the senior managers is such that I am confident that I have this level of trust in place already to enable a smooth process to occur. In addition, greater credibility is given to me conducting these interviews, as Kane (1997:68) asserts, ‘†¦the closer the interviewer is to the respondent in class, sex, age and interests, the greater chance the interviewer has of being successful.’ When considering the strengths and weaknesses of different types of interviews I endorse the comments of Patton (1980:206) who sets out the ‘interview guide approach’, which mirrors my requirements. The topic and issues to be covered are specified in advance, thus ‘†¦the outline increases the comprehensiveness of the data and makes data collection somewhat systematic for each respondent.’ I recognise that there is a risk of omitting important or salient points and that I must pay particular attention to maintaining focus on the key issues, in this case whether the managers consider that the ECDL programme has benefited the business. Consideration however must be given to the school of thought that exists regarding problems with the interview as a method for gathering my research data. Mason (1997:42) suggests that ‘good qualitative interviewing is hard, creative work. It is a much more complex and exhausting task to plan and carry out †¦ than, for example, to develop and use a structured questionnaire for asking a set of predetermined questions.’ Tuckman (1972) set out a number of problems with the interview as a technique for gathering data, including the fact that a competent interviewer is required (which may involve payment), a limited number of respondents can be reached and the reliability is quite limited. Whilst acknowledging these concerns, as I have set out my competency earlier, I require interviews with a controlled group of 6 individuals only and have a great degree of confidence in the reliability of my data. Not to mention that this interviewer requires no additional payment for the work. My final information gathering technique is the focus group which Kreuger (1988:27) highlights as typically having 5 characteristics, ‘†¦a) people who, b) posses certain characteristics, c) provide data, d) of a qualitative nature, e) in a focussed discussion.’ Cohen et al (2000:288) support my use of the focus group by suggesting that they ‘†¦might be useful to triangulate with more traditional forms of interviewing, questionnaires, observation etc.’ Although observation is not necessary or appropriate for my research, Cohen et al do concur with my use of the interview and questionnaire. According to the December 2002 issue of Croner’s A-Z Briefing (12/02:2), ‘†¦the main advantage of a focus group lies in its ability to collect subjective judgments where several, individual, judgments are better than just one. †¦By using a focus group †¦the researcher can see how and why individual judgments are supported †¦.’ This aspect of the focus group is particularly useful to me as it enables a group of learners to come together and share their experiences of the ECDL programme including highs and lows. It allows me the opportunity to facilitate discussion on the optimum way forward for AEGON UK Services and for future learners. Croner goes on to add that, ‘†¦they perform a useful function when evaluating various aspects of training and development, particularly when qualitative measurements are required and where it is deemed necessary to ascertain any unexpected outcomes or applications which have arisen as a result of such provision.’ Morgan (1988:43) cautions on the size of focus groups, suggesting ‘†¦between four and twelve†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ whilst Croner takes a similar stance, ‘†¦between 6 and 12†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Both of the above agree on the need for careful consideration with sampling, in this case with the focus group, as Croner puts it (P3), ‘†¦all those involved do need to be representative of the total population under consideration.’ I have already decided to use all of my Award-holders as I have 3 months in which to carry out the research and have a small group, as Bell (1999:83) suggests, ‘The number of subjects in your investigation will necessarily depend on the amount of time you have.’ However, the question of the size of the sample and how it is selected is an issue. Cohen and Mannion (1998:87) put forward a range of sampling tools including probability and non-probability, random and stratified samples whilst Bryman (1989:107) argues the case for a representative sample using a type of probability sample. To ensure that each of my ECDL Award-holders has an equal probability of inclusion in the sample used for the focus groups, names are drawn at random from an Excel spreadsheet. Kerlinger (1986:45), identifies randomness thus, it ‘†¦ means that there is no known law, capable of being expressed in language, that correctly explains or describes events and their outcomes.’ Kerlinger (1986:44) goes on to provide further evidence that my sampling approach is correct, ‘†¦ random sampling is that method of drawing a portion (sample) of a population †¦ so that each member of the population †¦ has an equal chance of being selected.’ Taking into account the thoughts of both Morgan and Croner above, I facilitat e 2 focus groups of 8 members each. There are some difficulties in using focus groups and some of these are identified by Krueger (1988:46/7) who outlines the following: less control of the group as opposed to individuals, difficulties in analysing data, lack of interview skills, varying group dynamics, assembling groups and creating a supportive environment. I acknowledge Krueger’s observations and take extra care when running the focus groups although I must stress that my background is as a skilled interviewer and I am able to create a stable, supportive environment for the attendees who have attended similar workshops and courses in the past, often facilitated by me. ‘Any research project is likely to raise ethical issues. This is particularly so if it involves people directly, but may also be the case even if you conduct your research entirely on documentary evidence’, Blaxter et al (1997:146). Clearly, it is wrong for me to assume that, given my position as Training Manager, there is no issue with ethics, people know me and are happy to open up and provide me with valuable and valid information. Bell (1999:52) warns, ‘People will be doing you a favour if they agree to help, and they will need to know exactly what they will be asked to do, how much time they will be expected to give and what use will be made of the information they provide.’ The view is endorsed by McKernan (2000:241), who adds that, ‘It is crucial for all participants to know what their rights are in research of any kind.’ As such, I take great care when contacting my ECDL learners to alert them to my research and the need for their valuable input to further the learning partnership within AEGON UK Services. Particular attention is paid to the senior managers who give me some of their valuable time for 1:1 interviews and each of them is contacted personally by telephone to discuss the needs and requirements of the research and agree suitable times for the interviews. Hopkins (2000:221/2) identifies a range of principles that I must observe in the commitment to my research including, observing protocol, involving participants, reporting on progress, maintaining confidentiality and obtaining authority before using quotations. Particular care was observed when considering the use of quotations from our external partner, Workplace Training Services, and I arranged a special meeting with Cyril Wheat to discuss the learning partnership and seek his agreement to the use of specific quotations, included in the Conclusions to this research. As Burns (2000:22/3) summarises, ‘All in all it looks fairly difficult to conduct much research without running into ethical arguments.’ Burns’ comments alert me to the need to take nothing for granted in view of my ‘special’ position with the learners, ‘Ethical problems are likely to occur in social science research since human subjects are involved. Researchers must be aware of ethical considerations involved in voluntary and non-voluntary participation, deception, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality, the right to discontinue, and obligations of the experimenter.’ It is this ‘special’ position, that of someone who has worked very closely with most of the ECDL learners, that Sellitz et al (1962:583) might have been thinking of then they attested, ‘†¦ interviewers are human beings and not machines and their manner may have an effect on respondents.’ Many factors can influence responses one way or another, for instance Borg (1981:87) highlights a few of the problems that can occur, ‘†¦ eagerness of the respondents to please the interviewer, a vague antagonism †¦ or the tendency of the interviewer to seek out the answers that his preconceived notions †¦.These factors are called response effect by survey researchers.’ ECDL learners know me well and are aware of my enthusiasm for the learning partnership and our work with the ECDL programme. Might this naturally influence their responses to questionnaires, focus group or, even senior managers, interview questions? However, Bell (1999:139) offers words of wisdom, just as the aspiring researcher wilts under the strains of potential bias, by pointing out that ‘†¦ it is easier to acknowledge the fact that bias can creep in than to eliminate it altogether. This is a key consideration for my research as I am very keen for it to succeed being the instigator of the learning partnership with Workplace Training Services and the person responsible for the ECDL programme. A further area for my research to draw upon is the Training team’s entry for the 2002 National Training Awards. The entry was based upon the team’s work with the ECDL programme in AEGON UK Services and I refer to the comments of the judges in the Data Analysis and Conclusions. 5. Analysis of Data My research amongst European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) award-holders in particular highlights the very positive aspects of the programme and it is encouraging to learn that all questioned feel that the programme has benefited them, personally and professionally. Significantly, the great majority of learners also felt able to now support colleagues with IT-related enquiries, a factor that reflects our status as an Investor In People; staff are keen to share knowledge with each other in a positive manner. ‘Being able to solve problems,’ ‘increasing one’s confidence’, ‘developing trouble-shooting skills’ and appropriately ‘staff trained in new technology’ are benefits to the company, as viewed by the learners. Although it is not the intention in my research to provide statistical analysis, rather to draw conclusions from learners’ responses, the feedback from learners does represent universal support for developing skills to enhance the business. Learners feel more competent to do their work, have a more confident approach and have developed skills to enable new work to be handled also converting manual tasks to a PC-based system. I am able to speak from personal experience and, as a result of taking the ECDL programme, I can now use Excel with some success. Whilst it is very difficult to make any claims with the research I am confident that the programme has made a significant difference. Prior to starting the ECDL prog ramme I was unable to use Excel despite having access to the program, after completing the Excel module I am now able to design spreadsheets for use in the Training team. There is evidence of other organisations introducing a successful ECDL programme and the following case study extracts are from the ECDL’s own website, Mike Sampson, Human Resources Director at Royal Liver Assurance, commented: â€Å"We are delighted that the ECDL pilot scheme has proved to be so successful and now intend to run ECDL again with further members of staff. It is important that our employees are given the opportunity to refresh and improve upon their IT skills, which ultimately reflects a great benefit to Royal Liver and ensures the company’s values and good standing are continually maintained.† ( Even in the world of IT itself, ECDL is viewed as a positive addition to the learning curriculum, Les Williamson, Resources Servicing Manager, IBM, added, ‘We realised fairly quickly that this certification would be beneficial across the site. Not many people can claim proficiency in all the IT productivity tools that we could be using everyday. This is a qualification that demonstrates just that. ( 90% of learners feel that they are now more confident when using a PC (66% of the remaining 10% already did so) which is an endorsement of our decision to offer the programme and a statistic from a similar exercise conducted amongst award-holders at Manchester NHS Health Authority in 2002 found that ECDL qualified staff are proven to save an average of 38 minutes per day. Staff within AEGON UK Services also highlighted the speed at which they are now able to process IT-related work as a benefit to the Company. Feedback from the learners in the questionnaires suggested that, whilst staff were achieving success using the CD ROM made available by Workplace Training Services, there was less than total satisfaction. Accordingly, amongst the questions I posed at the focus groups was ‘What method of learning would you recommend for future ECDL students?’ Although only a small percentage of respondents to the questionnaire felt that the quality of learning materials was less than ‘good’ during the focus groups, the mood was very different and people had the opportunity to express their views in more detail. It became apparent that the majority of the attendees of twelve felt that the CD ROM was difficult to work with, either because of their own IT situation out of the office, some did not have a PC at home, or more commonly because of the great amount of detail included. Their preferred learning method was to use paper-based material although some members of the focus gr oups felt that the CD ROM was ideal. Comments were also made that it was often difficult to obtain 1:1 support as members of the Training team were often involved in other projects and, in truth, were never seen as providing close support for learners. Learners’ comments were referred to Cyril Wheat who visited the site and spoke with groups of the learners; as a result, directly, of the feedback provided to Cyril his Workplace Training Services team started to provide future learning support material in two forms, paper-based for the majority, CD ROM where preferred. In addition, another change in policy as a result of feedback, with the introduction of a dedicated resource from the College, someone who would be guaranteed to be on the Lytham site once a week for personal tutorials. Most surprising amongst the findings was the feedback from the senior managers. Whilst the Managing Director has given the partnership with Workplace Training Services his blessing and has in fact recently enrolled on the ECDL programme, the same positive views are not held by the management team. I conducted the interviews and was surprised by the little knowledge that the managers had of the programme, one actually admitted that he had no awareness that any of his staff are taking an award. Whilst the general view amongst the managers was that any learning which develops the staff to enhance the business, must be a good thing, only one member of the team was more positive. One manager had experienced the ECDL programme personally, achieved the award, and spoke highly of the benefits to AEGON UK Services in supporting the implementation of COE. More work remains to be done with the management team for the future of the programme. 6. Conclusions The comments of learners who have achieved their European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) are extremely encouraging from a purely personal point of view, the initial thoughts are that my efforts in bringing the ECDL programme to AEGON UK Services staff has paid off. But that cursory observation is not sufficient to merit the programme a success. When we set off on the ECDL programme there was a clear business need to be met, successfully implementing the Common Operating Environment (COE) and the transfer to Microsoft Office 2000. What must not be overlooked was that the business was not using any formal training strategy to meet the requirements generated by the COE and I was confident that ECDL could provide many of the training needs. Although I am not able to provide any hard quantitative data I have feedback from learners and managers which supports the use of the programme. As one manager put it, ‘Having achieved the ECDL I can vouch for the skills and knowledge acquired. Members of my team have demonstrated the benefits of the learning through the enhanced use of different programs.’ The data provides evidence of ECDL supporting the implementation of COE in the business. New skills have been acquired by learners, many of whom are now looking for further opportunities, whilst at the same time encouraging colleagues to enrol on the programme. There are numerous examples quoted of staff who are now able to access different programs, use PowerPoint, Access or in my case, get to grips with Excel for the first time. Our relationship with Workplace Training Services has developed, from the first tentative enquiries regarding the use of ECDL, the College’s first learning partnership in the North West to one of collaboration on other projects; as I close this research we are discussing certificated learning to meet behavioural competencies. Cyril Wheat, Manager Dedicated Delivery, is proud of his organisation’s role with the business and speaks highly of our work, ‘with the commitment of an employer who is providing resources is very important.’ The need for such support is echoed by Tim Rush of Islington Council who adds, ‘We have been lucky here in Islington, Members of the Council and senior management have been fully supportive. Gaining support at that level is essential to any successful implementation.’ ( Cyril’s team’s commitment to us now includes the use of 10 PCs, available for any form of learning, and a dedicated resource on-site for work with the ECDL programme. Significantly, the learning has largely taken place at no cost to the business and during 2002 over 100 learners were enrolled with Workplace Training Services for free and we have ascertained that open learning with the ECDL programme may yet prove to be extremely cost effective to the business. We have 150 staff achieved or working towards the award with 100 more to follow during the course of this year an costs incurred to-date are a little over à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½3,000 which is approximately à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½12 per learner. Given that this learning ultimately accredits staff members with a universally accepted IT qualification and attendance on external learning is in my experience over à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½100 per day then I believe that this equates to value for money learning. Our work with the fledgling ECDL programme in employer-related learning has highlighted new areas for study. As demonstrated earlier, learners had difficulties with the Computer Based Training and the CD ROM was not viewed as user-friendly; as a result, their feedback has been taken into account and staff enrolling more recently have had access to paper-based support material with CR ROMs available where required. The judges at the 2002 National Training Awards were ‘†¦ impressed by your decision to encourage your employees to undertake the ECDL qualification’ and drew upon a number of other positive aspects although they highlighted a number of important issues for the team to consider. As I point out above, there are limitations with my research and issues to consider for the coming months, as the judges point out in their feedback, ‘†¦ it is still quite early in the process of introducing the Common Operating Environment’ and they have suggested that we ‘re-enter at a later date’. I am also conscious that the research has been carried out by someone with a clearly vested interest in its success, the training of staff in the business is after all my responsibility, and that this may have clouded the findings. I acknowledge this limitation and make efforts to minimise the effects of this bias. My ultimate findings are also effected by yet more bias; the results are based upon my work with learners at AEGON UK Services in a supportive environment where facilities are made available to them and they do not have to pay any fees. I make no claims about applying my results to a wider audience whether in another industry or with the public at large. However, the final thought lies with Andrew Mayo, writing in the January 2003 edition of Training Journal, who holds out, ‘So here is the challenge for 2003. Will you be able to say, at the end of the year, where and how learning interventions made a difference to the achievements of the organisation(s) you work with †¦.’ From the feedback received from learners and indeed Workplace Training Services’ staff I am confident that the ECDL programme has already made an impact on AEGON UK Services although greater communication is required with senior managers based upon their own feedback. Furthermore, as the judges of the National Training Awards indicate, there is yet more to come as our learning partnership matures and more staff set out on the road to success through the challenge of ECDL. Project Proposal – DHL0730 Empirical Study AEGON UK Services in partnership with Workplace Training Services, an arm of Preston College, started to offer the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) to staff in September 2001. The ECDL programme based it is upon Microsoft Office 2000 applications was seen as an ideal complement to the Common Operating Environment (COE) to be launched in 2002. At the same time the launch of ECDL provided further evidence of the Company facilitating learning and development opportunities for its staff. Under COE the whole of AEGON UK would operate with Microsoft Office 2000 whilst over 90% of staff were familiar with the 1997 version or earlier. To-date over 150 staff have started or finished the ECDL programme yet no evaluation of the success or otherwise of ECDL within AEGON UK Services has ever been carried out. Title of Research An evaluation of the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) as used by AEGON UK Services. Brief Description The ECDL was launched to develop the skills of European citizens and to enable them to become proficient in PC skills. The use of ECDL within AEGON UK Services was designed to provide staff with the skills necessary to deal effectively with the Common Operating Environment (COE), in effect Microsoft Office 2000.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Analysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein - 1321 Words

The definition of success often varies from person to person. To Victor Frankenstein, his version of success entails to earning widespread recognition and praise from achieving something that no one else prior has accomplished; the act of bestowing life into an inanimate object. Mary Shelley’s classic story of Frankenstein commendably demonstrates the idea that, in trying to rise above others, those who dream of glory can easily turn a blind eye to the consequences. This is seen in Frankenstein’s obsession with completing his initial goal, his unpreparedness in dealing with the monster, and in his inability to take responsibility for the consequences afterwards. Frankenstein’s initial exhilaration in constructing his experiment stems from his own desire to rise above others, which he plans to do through completing something no one else has realized before. In successfully bestowing life into an inanimate object, Frankenstein believes that he â€Å"will pioneer a new way, explore unknown powers, and unfold to the world the deepest mysteries of creation† (33). Essentially, he believes that his work will unlock the secret of life. If he succeeds in pushing for this momentous bound in scientific learning, people will be able to expand the boundaries of natural sciences by using his research as a guideline. These thoughts are born from his hopes that, while â€Å"money [is] an inferior object, what glory would attend the discovery if [he] could banish disease from the human frame andShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein1411 Words   |  6 PagesIn the early 1800s Mary Shelley set pen to a paper and started to dev elop a novel that little to her knowledge would become world renowned. In 1818 she finished and published the novel to sell to the European public. The novel caught the world off guard in the way that a female was able to write about such harsh, dark, and evil things in a European society whose authors like John Locke and Charles Montesquieu preached enlightenment, self exploration, and individualism all in an optimistic enablingRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein1615 Words   |  7 Pagesa whole and how accurate a depiction they might think it to be, they will miss out on many of the qualities of the painting that reside below the immediately apparent surface level. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a text dedicated to expounding upon the dangers of such superficial analysis. In Frankenstein, Mary Shelley openly condemns the surface level and appearance oriented methodology under which the human mind operates. The very protagonist of the novel is inspired solely by reputation and howRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1758 Words   |  8 PagesFrankenstein was published over 200 years ago. Ever since it was published, it has been one of the most famous books known to literature. Staff states that this book, by 21-year-old Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, is frequently called the world’s first science fiction novel ( Staff). According to Wikipedia, Shelley was an English novelist. She was born August 30th, 1797. She died on February 1st, 1951 (Wikipedia). Shelley came up with the idea of Frankenstein as she andRead MoreBiblical Analysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1376 Words   |  6 PagesLiterature 16 November 2015 Biblical Analysis: Frankenstein Frankenstein by Mary Shelley often refers to the bible on a number of occasions. However, it is worth noting that many references used by Mary Shelley in Frankenstein can often be identified in Genesis. Much like Genesis, the story of Frankenstein is a viable creation story. The book of Genesis first explains the creation of man and woman, and also recounts the fall of humanity. Unlike Genesis, Frankenstein begins with the fall of humanityRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein And Frankenstein1410 Words   |  6 Pagescompassion and sympathy through the love of a person whom cares very deeply about them. In Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, the three main characters Robert Walton, Victor Frankenstein and Frankenstein (The Monster) are shown throughout the story, longing and in search for a companion. Throughout the story, the characters struggle with the battle of wanting either sympathy or compassion from a person or both. Mary Shelley shows the true indication of Human Nature by showing the importance of sympathy andRead MoreAnalysis of Mary Shelley ´s Frankenstein991 Words   |  4 Pagesalive. If it can learn, eventually speak, or came about because of another, it’s a person. The Creature of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is no exception. 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Caroline Beaufort is present in the novel, but her role is limitedRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1038 Words   |  5 PagesAlexi Torres English III Dr. W.W. Allman December 1, 2015 Frankenstein In Mary Shelley’s, Frankenstein, she shows that good people can turn evil, but are not born this way. Humans being rude and isolating someone can make a person go insane and do things they are not proud of. Shelley shows this through the creature that Frankenstein creates and gives examples showing his evilness, but also shows that the creature tries to explain many times that he wants a friend and cannot find one becauseRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1088 Words   |  5 PagesCreature’s Argument In the novel, Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, the Creature s only need is for a female companion, which he asks Victor Frankenstein his maker to create. Shelley shows the argument between the creature and Frankenstein. The creature says: I demand a creature of another sex, but as hideous as myself (Shelley 139). Shelley shows what the creature wants from Frankenstein and what his needs are. Shelley gives us an idea of the sympathy that Frankenstein might feel for the creature evenRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 843 Words   |  4 PagesThe Wretch Frankenstein is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley about a peculiar scientist named Victor Frankenstein. Victor, who is a scientist endeavoring to make history, engenders a monstrous but attentive creature in an eccentric scientific experiment. The monster that he engenders faces abnegation and fear from his creator and society. The monster is the worst kind of scientific experiment gone awry. The creature has compassion for society but additionally wants to take revenge on

Friday, December 27, 2019

Motivation, Stress, and Communication Leadership and...

Motivation, Stress, and Communication BUS 520 Leadership and Organizational Behavior August 21, 2012 Create a brief job description for a position within the company you research that you would like to fill. Emory is among the top 20 universities in the country and is internationally recognized for its academics, groundbreaking research and technological advances with staff, faculty and students representing all regions of the United States and more than 100 foreign nations. As an Emory employee, you are part of a community that values diversity, education, training, and personal development. Your creativity is valued and innovative ideas are rewarded. We invite you to share in a unique culture of education, research and health†¦show more content†¦Through your help staff must be allowed to find self-confidence within them, not only will they work more efficiently but they will probably end up enjoying their jobs a lot more, this is the beginning of efficient and welcomed service. A nurse manager’s goals would therefore largely be based on their staff , ensuring that they are happy and cared for. A successful institution is only triumphant when everyone is working in an enjoyable environment and this all starts with you. Patient care will immediately show improvement and the institution will be remembered for the caring service that they received. People always tend to respond well to a kind and gentle attitude above that of an aggressive and forceful nature. Nurse manager goals are not achievable overnight, but they are reachable, with a lot of hard work, dedication, a vision and enthusiasm for what you do. Analyze your own reactions to stressful situations and discuss the steps you could take to manage the stress associated with your new position. Stress is a powerful overwhelming emotion and stressful events in life can have a significant impact. The writer of this paper has a tendency to internalize stress and hold on the problems or issues until it is resolved. This is an unhealthy trait to possess. Developing a sound proof decompression space with peaceful music creates a serene environment which promotes effective stress management. Creating pockets of quiet time to be spent,Show MoreRelatedOrganizational Behavior Essay1591 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives. Organizations are social inventions for accomplishingRead Moreorganizational behaviour1261 Words   |  6 Pages Organizational Behavior MG6013 The exploration of the theories, research and practices that allow a better understanding of human behavior in organizations. Topics include motivation and job satisfaction; decision making; group dynamics; work teams; leadership; communication; power, politics and conflict; organization culture, structure and design; impact of technology; management of work stress; organizational change andRead MoreLeading Org Final Exam Notes Essay1575 Words   |  7 Pages1. Stress and well being Define stress and describe the stress experience Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threating to the person’s well-being. Distress – negative destructive effects, can be caused from boredom or under stimulation or overstimulation. Eustress –positive, constructive effects which are better performance, etc. Identify the different types of stressors in the workplace Interpersonal Stressors, most common, include team dynamicsRead MoreBuilding Positive Organizational Behavior And Macro Organization1494 Words   |  6 PagesBuilding Positive Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior (OB) is defined as a study in which individuals relate to each other in an organizational and group setting. Analysis are conducted through various perspectives, incorporating behavior inside the organization in regards to other establishments. â€Å"Organizational behavior is the methodical study of how individuals / groups think and act within organizations exhibiting how these activities affect the effectiveness of the organizationRead MoreComponents of Transformational Leadership Theory Essay909 Words   |  4 PagesTransformational leadership theory conceptualized in the late 1970’s, proposed that leaders could motivate followers through shared vision and mutual interest to uplift the entire organization to a higher morality (Burns, 1978). Morality was defined as leaders and followers working together to fulfill organizational goals and achieve higher performances within a context of change and innovation. Leaders would surpass their own self-int erest, in order to, foresee, foster, and indoctrinate a new organizationalRead MoreLeadership And Its Effect On Employee s Productivity1568 Words   |  7 Pages Leadership is a crucial concept in the organizational sciences and has prompted many researchers to study its effects and benefits on management as well as its effects on employee’s productivity. In the structure of an organization or institution, the position of leadership is fundamental for its proper function and operation. Leadership is about having the ability to influence others. Having influence means that there is a greater need on the part of leadership positions to exercise their influenceRead MoreThe Stress Level Among Employees1035 Words   |  5 Pagesgroup. Employees who are silent about important issues may also experience psychological stress. (Robbins, S and Judge, T, 2014). Below chart shows some other major causes of stress when working in groups in an organization. Fig 6 - Working with Others Is Often Irritating. (Robbins, S and Judge, T, 2014). At any stage, if the managers and team members disagree about perceptions of organizational support, stress level among employees increases. The employees are unsure about how to proceed with theRead MoreWhat Strengths Of Organizational Leadership Presented By Sales And Marketing1635 Words   |  7 Pagesfor sexual harassment; and HR Manager (SS) Sheila Simmons lacks communications skills, and high job stress. Identifying the strengths of organizational leadership presented by Sales and Marketing (PI) Kenneth Bright along with OD consultant can lead and manage the organizational change. The OD consultant plans to introduce and communicate the change initiative to the employees begin with an interview questions by gender, organizational levels and age. Using Lewin’s method (B), functions (f), personality(P)Read MoreThe Concise Encyclopedia of Management1645 Words   |  7 Pages1) Motivation stems from the Latin word movere, which means to move. Motivation is some driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some need or expectation It is clear from the case study that Commonwealth Bank applies a spectrum of motivational theories to promote good customer service. The behavior of people is revealed by what motivates them. Performance is the result of both ability and motivation: Performance = function (ability x motivation)Read More Leadership Characteristics Of Effective Transformational Leadership1465 Words   |  6 PagesDiscuss three leadership attributes this person possessed AND provide specific examples you witnessed when these attributes were used to demonstrate effective clinical leadership During my clinical placement, I experienced many examples of effective transformational leadership attributes including communication, trustworthiness and motivational from my leader, Linda. Ewing (2016), defined communication as the art and science of transmitting information, involving both verbal and nonverbal methods

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Socrates Sense Of Virtue Essay - 1250 Words

Socrates’ sense of virtue, as established in Plato’s Apology of Socrates, Crito, and Symposium collectively, revolves around the pursuit of wisdom, knowledge, and justice, all in an effort to benefit the soul rather than the physical body. Given that this oftentimes contradicts standard values of honor and beauty, Socrates is targeted by many of those around him who oppose his ideas and ways of thinking, especially since the youth begin to criticize the elders’ concern for the trappings of honor and beauty rather than for interior virtues. Unlike Socrates’ case, Aeneas’ sense of virtue complies with the standard societal definition, emphasizing pietas, or respect for the gods and dedication to family and community. In his efforts to†¦show more content†¦29d). Unlike his fellows Athenians, Socrates cares little â€Å"whether a person is beautiful, or rich, or famous in any other way that most people admire† (Sym. 216e). Unwilling to c ompromise his own values, Socrates continues to challenge those around him, even at the risk of losing his own life. In Plato’s Crito, Socrates likens himself to Achilles who, insistent on avenging Patroclus’ death, â€Å"belittled death and danger, fearing much more to live as a bad man and not to avenge his friends† (Apo. 28c). Socrates holds little regard for his wellbeing when the threat of being unfaithful to his beliefs is at hand. Socrates faces a lot of opposition from the public because of the nature of his teachings as he attempts to demonstrate the value of knowledge and justice. In his apologia, having been charged with â€Å"corrupting the young† (Aen. 24b), Socrates questions Meletus mercilessly, forcing him into contradicting himself and leaving him speechless with â€Å"nothing to say† (Apo. 24d). Much of Socrates’ teachings revolve around making others aware of their own ignorance, as he does with the politician, â€Å"[try ing] to show him that he supposed he was wise, but was not† (Apo. 21c). Plato’s Symposium recounts the speech of Alcibiades in which Alcibiades describes â€Å"what an extraordinary effect [Socrates’] words always had† (Sym. 215d). According to Alcibiades, Socrates â€Å"makes it seems that his life isn’t worth living† (Sym. 216a). These kinds of lessonsShow MoreRelatedPlato s Meno And Nietzsche On Truth And Lie1720 Words   |  7 PagesOn Truth And Lie In An Extra-Moral Sense, both writers touch upon the theme of â€Å"truth† and â€Å"knowledge†. In Meno, Plato writes of a dialogue between his late mentor, Socrates and politician Meno. In the Meno dialogue, through a dialectical method, Socrates’s manages to prove to Meno he knows nothing of virtue while On Truth And Lie In An Extra-Moral Sense, Nietzsche analyzes how language isn’t â€Å"truth† and Knowledge is an invention as a means of survival. Socrat es or rather Plato are more rational whereasRead MoreSocrates as Philosopher King Essay1709 Words   |  7 PagesThe legendary Athenian, Socrates, was one such figure.   Socrates ushered in an era of philosophical inquiry that still lingers to this day.   In Book Seven of Platos The Republic, Socrates outlines his perfect regime.   According to Socrates, an enlightened Philosopher-King must rule such a regime.   Now suppose this Republic actually came into being, and Socrates was asked to rule it as a Philosopher King.   Would he?   Answering this begs three important questions:   Is Socrates a true philosopher?  Read MoreJustice Is The Best Choice For Its Own Sake1307 Words   |  6 PagesPlato’s Republic, is a classic philosophical novel that covers many points and topics regarding philosophy. One of these main points includes justice. In this essay I will be answering the question of whether justice in soul is choice worthy for its own sake. While this to pic is quite complex, I will use a mixture of personal analysis as well as evidence from the book itself to assert that justice in soul is the best choice for its own sake. In the following paragraphs I will discuss what justiceRead MoreEssay about Meno and the Socratic Method1413 Words   |  6 Pagescentral question: If virtue can be taught, then how? And if not, then how does virtue come to man, either by nature or some other way? Socrates addresses this inquiry by questioning a person who claims to understand the term’s meaning (Platos Meno). The purpose of this essay is to relate the Socratic method performed by Socrates in Plato’s dialogue The Apology, to Meno, by illustrating its effect on the character Meno himself. After questioning Meno about virtue, Socrates comes to the conclusionRead MoreSpeech Analysis : The Apology 858 Words   |  4 PagesThe speech title is deceiving to the eye, this speech isn’t even an apology, and it’s more of defense speech. Socrates uses the speech to defend his accusations against him. In the story, â€Å"The Apology† Socrates is on trial for accusation like, â€Å"corrupting the youth† and â€Å"impiety.† Through this following essay, According the following: what Socrates means of knowledge or wisdom and why he thought that knowledge/wisdom was the best means of happiness and perfecting the soul, what kind of knowledgeRead MoreSocrates s Philosophy And Critical Analysis1138 Words   |  5 Pages Socrates [Author Name] [University] Socrates Socrates- A Brief Intro Socrates is known for his imminent contribution in western philosophy. A deep insight into his philosophical theories and concepts was possible only through the works of his disciples, Plato and Xenophon. Socrates left no written record of his writings or dialogues he had with different people across the city of Athens. He had a unique indirect way of diving into the reality of variousRead MoreAnalysis Of Plato s Republic And The Letter Of The City Essay1328 Words   |  6 Pagesabout justice and if it something that is just in itself. This essay is meant to shine light on three of the key concepts – (1) He has succeeded in Thrasymachus’s challenge, (2) being just provides more happiness than being unjust, and (3) the letter of the city is irrelevant and does not help his case. Thrasymachus’s theory is that there is no benefit to being just and that benefit would only com to the powerful. However, Socrates puts down this theory by proving that it is in every human’s interestRead MorePhilosophy1687 Words   |  7 PagesAnthony Charpentier Due Date: 10/7/14 PHI 307 – Ancient Philosophy First Essay Assignment Xenophanes, Socrates, Plato on the possibility of knowledge Skepticism – A skeptical attitude; doubt as to the truth of something. In ordinary skepticism this would mean someone who would doubt the existence of something. A difference between the two is normal skepticism is you try to get it clear in your head. Ordinary doubt - or local skepticism - can usually be tested - and even when it cantRead MoreEssay on Platos Response to Thrasymachus Immoralist View of Justice1491 Words   |  6 PagesPlatos Response to Thrasymachus Immoralist View of Justice In Book 1 of the ‘Republic’, Socrates, in answer to the question ‘What is Justice?’ is presented with a real and dangerous alternative to what he thinks to be the truth about Justice. Julia Annas believes Thrasymachus thinks Justice and Injustice do have a real existence that is independent of human institutions; and that Thrasymachus makes a decided commitment to Injustice. She calls this view ‘Immoralism’: â€Å"the immoralist holdsRead MoreThe Trial And Death Of Socrates By Plato, Antigone, And Confessions By Saint Augustine1506 Words   |  7 Pagesbasic rights to be upheld by the state. Together, members share social responsibility, actively pursuing a sense of communal virtue. The fruition of their cooperation brings about conditions where it is easiest for individuals to freely improve the wealth of the public. Using the texts The Trial and Death of Socrates by Plato, Antigone by Sophocles, and Confessions by Saint Augustine, this es say will explore the complex relationship between the individual and society in Greco-Roman culture. It will